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These quickly dispersed people into their seats and, upon conclusion of the event or in an emergency evacuation, could permit their exit within only a few minutes. This utilized a great variety of wild beasts, mainly imported from Africa and the Middle East, and included creatures such as rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, elephants, giraffes, aurochs, wisents, Barbary lions, panthers, leopards, bears, Caspian tigers, crocodiles and ostriches. [10], In 2011 Diego Della Valle, head of the shoe firm Tod's, entered into an agreement with local officials to sponsor a €25 million restoration of the Colosseum. [11][3] The giant bronze sculpture of Nero as a solar deity was moved to its position beside the amphitheatre by the emperor Hadrian (r. [11] By the year 1000 the Latin name "Colosseum" had been coined to refer to the amphitheatre from the nearby "Colossus Solis". It is not only the largest amphitheatre of the Roman Empire, but the largest amphitheatre ever built. Origin of Colosseum . The interior of the amphitheater was extensively stripped of stone, which was reused elsewhere, or (in the case of the marble façade) was burned to make quicklime. [20] Along with this free source of unskilled labor, teams of professional Roman builders, engineers, artists, painters and decorators undertook the more specialized tasks necessary for building the Colosseum. These will provide a stage that Franceschini says will be used for "cultural events of the highest level. Etymology: Neut., fr. 1 capitalized: colosseum sense 1 2 : a large sports stadium or building designed like the Colosseum for public entertainments Synonyms Example Sentences Learn More about coliseum The tier above the senators, known as the maenianum primum, was occupied by the non-senatorial noble class or knights (equites). However, it is uncertain whether the arena was the site of the martyrdom of early Christians. The outer wall was constructed with travertine stones held together with iron clamps rather than … [16][11] By 1460, an equivalent existed in Catalan: coliseu; by 1495 had appeared the Spanish: coliseo, and by 1548 the Portuguese: coliseu. After over a thousand years of neglect, state-funded restoration efforts began in the 1990s. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine. Supporting masts extended from corbels built into the Colosseum’s top, or attic, story, and hundreds of Roman sailors were required to manipulate the rigging that extended and retracted the velarium. See more. It is an amphitheater, also referred to as Flavian Amphitheater, situated amidst the city of Rome in Italy. Part of the arena floor has been re-floored. 1400)-language text, Articles containing Middle French (ca. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. The artificial lake that was the centrepiece of that palace complex was drained, and the Colosseum was sited there, a decision that was as much symbolic as it was practical. The Colosseum today is now a major tourist attraction in Rome with thousands of tourists each year entering to view the interior arena. Oval in shape, it measures 189m long, 156m wide and 50m high (about the … Special boxes were provided at the north and south ends respectively for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins, providing the best views of the arena. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, … [46][47][48] On the other hand, other scholars believe that the majority of martyrdoms may have occurred at other venues within the city of Rome, rather than at the Colosseum, citing a lack of still-intact physical evidence or historical records. Most recently, the Colosseum was illuminated in gold in November 2012 following the abolishment of capital punishment in the American state of Connecticut in April 2012.[30]. It was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. 81–96). Specific sectors were provided for other social groups: for instance, boys with their tutors, soldiers on leave, foreign dignitaries, scribes, heralds, priests and so on. jw2019 . The Colosseum is an amphitheatre built in Rome under the Flavian emperors of the Roman Empire. In 2018 the Colosseum, Roman Forum, and Palatine Hill together brought in more than $63.3 million (€53.8 million), the highest revenue of any tourist attraction in Italy. It is commonly known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, named after the dynasty of emperors that presided over its construction. This was drained and as a precaution against potential earthquake damage concrete foundations six metres deep were put down. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian (r. 69–79 AD) in 72[1] and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir, Titus (r. The existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea.[18]. Colosseum. The Colosseum (/ˌkɒləˈsiːəm/ KOL-ə-SEE-əm; Italian: Colosseo [kolosˈsɛːo]), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, just east of the Roman Forum and is the largest ancient amphitheatre ever built, and is still the largest standing amphitheater in the world today, despite its age. Mehr Beispiele. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Around the perimeter of the Colosseum, at a distance of 18 m (59 ft) from the perimeter, was a series of tall stone posts, with five remaining on the eastern side. The Colosseum is built of travertine limestone, tuff (volcanic rock), and brick-faced concrete. [62] A century later Fioravante Martinelli listed the Colosseum at the head of a list of places sacred to the martyrs in his 1653 book Roma ex ethnica sacra. Attempts were made in 1871 to eradicate the vegetation, because of concerns over the damage that was being caused to the masonry, but much of it has returned. At the insistence of St. Leonard of Port Maurice, Pope Benedict XIV (1740–1758) forbade the quarrying of the Colosseum and erected Stations of the Cross around the arena, which remained until February 1874. The Colosseum or Coliseum, kent as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Laitin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio [aŋfiteˈaːtro ˈflaːvjo] or Colosseo [kolosˈsɛːo]) an aw, is an oval amphitheatre in the centre o the ceety o Roum, Italy. Taking three years, the final product of this work was unveiled 1 July 2016, when the Italian minister of culture, Dario Franceschini, also announced that the funds have been committed to replace the floors by the end of 2018. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The northern main entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his aides, whilst the other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. [18], Each tier was divided into sections (maeniana) by curved passages and low walls (praecinctiones or baltei), and were subdivided into cunei, or wedges, by the steps and aisles from the vomitoria. [45], The Colosseum is generally regarded by Christians as a site of the martyrdom of large numbers of believers during the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, as evidenced by Church history and tradition. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. ( ˌkɒləˈsɪəm) n. (Named Buildings) an amphitheatre in Rome built about 75–80 ad. [11] In the 12th century, the structure was recorded as the amphitheatrum colisei, 'Amphitheatre of the Colossus'. [citation needed], In the 8th century, an epigram attributed to the Venerable Bede celebrated the symbolic significance of the statue in a prophecy that is variously quoted: Quamdiu stat Colisæus, stat et Roma; quando cadet colisæus, cadet et Roma; quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus ("as long as the Colossus stands, so shall Rome; when the Colossus falls, Rome shall fall; when Rome falls, so falls the world"). It is elliptical in plan and is 189 meters (615 ft / 640 Roman feet) long, and 156 meters (510 ft / 528 Roman feet) wide, with a base area of 24,000 square metres (6 acres). What does the name Colosseum mean? "Colosseum". Additionally, bird migration, flower blooming, and the growth of Rome that caused the Colosseum to become embedded within the modern city centre rather than on the outskirts of the ancient city, as well as deliberate transport of species, are also contributing causes. It is also called the Flavian Amphitheatre. The Ludus Magnus had its own miniature training arena, which was itself a popular attraction for Roman spectators. [21] Dio Cassius recounts that over 9,000 wild animals were killed during the inaugural games of the amphitheatre. the Colosseum. Other Dictionary Sources A large … The Colosseum fell into serious disrepair after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Many of the original outer entrances have disappeared with the collapse of the perimeter wall, but entrances XXIII (23) to LIIII (54) survive.[18]. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. On Good Fridays, the Pope leads a torch lit "Way of the Cross" procession around the various levels of the amphitheatre. Construction was funded by the opulent spoils taken from the Jewish Temple after the First Jewish–Roman War in 70 CE led to the Siege of Jerusalem. Also nearby were the Armamentarium, comprising an armory to store weapons; the Summum Choragium, where machinery was stored; the Sanitarium, which had facilities to treat wounded gladiators; and the Spoliarium, where bodies of dead gladiators were stripped of their armor and disposed of. [42] The first stage is to clean and restore the Colosseum's arcaded façade and replace the metal enclosures that block the ground-level arches. The construction of the Colosseum was begun in 72 CE in the reign of Vespasian on the site that was once the lake and gardens of Emperor Nero’s Golden House. Submit. The peak was in 1855 (420 species). The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79. It came to be seen as an iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome. The noun COLOSSEUM has 1 sense: 1. a large amphitheater in Rome whose construction was begun by Vespasian about AD 75 or 80. The finale of JoJo's Bizarre Adventure: Vento Aureo, in both the anime and manga, takes place in the Colosseum. The fourth level held the marketplace, and the top fifth tier is where the poorest citizens, the plebeians, gathered and watched the show, bringing picnics for the day-long event. [19] By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited. Separate tunnels were provided for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins to permit them to enter and exit the Colosseum without needing to pass through the crowds.[18]. 1) The Colosseum was built between 72 A.D and 80 A.D under the Emperor Vespasian, in the heart of Ancient Rome. Inscriptions identified the areas reserved for specific groups. Another level, the maenianum secundum in legneis, was added at the very top of the building during the reign of Domitian. The Colosseum was a stage for gladiatorial battle or a stage for justice where prisoners or criminals were executed in front of the entire Rome. Other Christian crosses stand in several points around the arena and every Good Friday the Pope leads a Via Crucis procession to the amphitheater. Because of the ruined state of the interior, it is impractical to use the Colosseum to host large events; only a few hundred spectators can be accommodated in temporary seating. "[43] The project also plans to create a services center and to restore the galleries and underground spaces inside the Colosseum. Flanking them at the same level was a broad platform or podium for the senatorial class, who were allowed to bring their own chairs. In the Middle Ages, the Colosseum was not regarded as a monument, and was used as what some modern sources label a "quarry,"[58] which is to say that stones from the Colosseum were taken for the building of other sacred sites. It includes an arena and four tiers of seats for spectators (about 50,000). The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators. Unlike earlier Greek theatres that were built into hillsides, the Colosseum is an entirely free-standing structure. ... en AN ANCIENT inscription found in the Colosseum of Rome, Italy, may indirectly confirm a Bible prophecy about the destruction of Jerusalem. See Coliseum. The greater the bond, the stronger the cohesion was in the unit. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Colosseum, National Geographic Kids - Ten Facts About The Colosseum!ss, Ancient Hisotry Encyclopedia - Colosseum, Rome, Italy, Smithsonian Channel - What Gladiator School Was Like, The History Learning Site - Roman Entertainment, Sacred Destinations - Colosseum, Rome, Italy, Colosseum - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Colosseum - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up).
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